A whole new look for the classic novel that has sold over 450,000 copies
Dana, a modern black woman, is celebrating her twenty-sixth birthday with her new husband when she is snatched abruptly from her home in California and transported to the antebellum South. Rufus, the white son of a plantation owner, is drowning, and Dana has been summoned to save him. Dana is drawn back repeatedly through time to the slave quarters, and each time the stay grows longer, more arduous, and more dangerous until it is uncertain whether or not Dana’s life will end, long before it has a chance to begin.
“Octavia Butler is a writer who will be with us for a long, long time, and Kindred is that rare magical artifact . . . the novel one returns to, again and again.” —Harlan Ellison
“One cannot finish Kindred without feeling changed. It is a shattering work of art with much to say about love, hate, slavery, and racial dilemmas, then and now.” —Sam Frank, Los Angeles Herald-Examiner
“In Kindred, Octavia Butler creates a road for the impossible and a balm for the unbearable. It is everything the literature of science fiction can be.” —Walter Mosley
“Truly terrifying . . . A book you’ll find hard to put down.” —Essence
“Butler’s books are exceptional . . . She is a realist, writing the most detailed social criticism and creating some of the most fascinating female characters in the genre . . . real women caught in impossible situations.” —Dorothy Allison, Village Voice
“Butler’s literary craftsmanship is superb.” —Washington Post Book World
“One of the most original, thought-provoking works examining race and identity.” —Lynell George, Los Angeles Times
This powerful novel about a modern black woman transported back in time to a slave plantation in the antebellum South is the perfect introduction to Butler’s work and perspectives for those not usually enamored of science fiction. . .A harrowing, haunting story.” —John Marshall, Seattle Post-Intelligencer
“No other work of fantasy or science fiction writings brings the intimate environment of the antebellum South to life better than Octavia E. Butler’s Kindred.” —Kevin Weston, San Francisco Chronicle
“A celebrated mainstay of college courses in women’s studies and black literature and culture; some colleges require it as mandatory freshman reading.” —Linell Smith, The Baltimore Sun
“Kindred is as much a novel of psychological horror as it is a novel of science fiction. . .a work of art whose individual accomplishment defies categorization.” —Barbara Strickland, The Austin Chronicle
“A startling and engrossing commentary on the complex actuality and continuing heritage of American slavery.” —Sherley Anne Williams, Ms.
“Her books are disturbing, unsettling… In a field dominated by white male authors, Butler’s African-American feminist perspective is unique, and uniquely suited to reshape the boundaries of the sci-fi genre.” —Bill Glass, L. A. Style
- Click here to see Kindred featured as one of thirty titles chosen for World Book Night 2012.
- Click here to see Kindred featured in a recent Washington Post story on World Book Night 2012.
This guide was made possible
by a grant from The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
"What tangled skeins are the
geneologies of slavery!"
Harriet Jacobs, Incidents
in the Life of a Slave Girl,
1861 (from the Introduction by Robert
The American slave narrative is a literary form whose historical
boundaries are firmly marked. While first-person narratives about
oppression and exclusion will persist as long as racism persists,
slave narratives ceased to be written when the last American citizen
who had lived under institutionalized slavery died. The only way
in which a new slave-memoir could be written is if someone were
able to travel into the past, become a slave, and return to tell
the story. Because the laws of physics, such as we know them, preclude
traveling backwards in time, such a book would have to be a hybrid
of autobiographical narrative and scientific fantasy. That is exactly
the sort of book Octavia Butler imagined when she wrote Kindred,
first published in 1979. Like all good works of fiction, it lies
like the truth.
from the Introduction
Dana, a modern black woman,
is celebrating her twenty-sixth birthday with her new husband,
when she is abruptly snatched from her home in present California
and transported back to the antebellum South. Rufus, the white
son of a plantation owner, is drowning; and Dana has been summoned
across the years to save him. After this first summons, Dana
is drawn back again and again to the plantation to protect Rufus
and ensure that he will grow to manhood and father the daughter
who is to become her ancestor. Each time, however, the stays
grow longer and more dangerous until it is uncertain whether
or not Dana's life will end, long before it has even begun.
- Both Kevin and Dana know
that they can't change history: "We're in the middle of history.
We surely can't change it." (page100); and "It's over . . .
There's nothing you can do to change any of it now." (page 264).
What, then, are the purposes of Dana' s travels back to the
antebellum South? Why must you, the reader, experience this
journey with Dana?
- How would the story have
been different with a third person narrator?
- Many of the characters
within Kindred resist classification. In what ways does
Dana explode the slave stereotypes of the "house-nigger, the
handerkchief-head, and the female Uncle Tom" (page 145). In
what ways does she transcend them?
- Despite Dana's conscious
effort to refuse the 'mammy' role in the Weylin household, she
finds herself caught within it: "I felt like Sarah, cautioning."
(page 156), and others see her as the mammy: "You sound just
like Sarah" (page 159). How, if at all, does Dana reconcile
this behavior? How would you reconcile it?
- "The ease. Us, the children
. . . I never realized how easily people could be trained to
accept slavery." This is said by Dana to Kevin when they have
returned to the present and are discussing their experience
in the antebellum South. To what extent, if any, do you believe
racial oppression exists today?
- How do you think Butler
confronts us with issues of difference in Kindred? How
does she challenge us to consider boundaries of black/white,
master/slave, husband/wife, past/present? What other differences
does she convolute? Do you think such dichotomies are flexible?
- Compare Tom Weylin and
Rufus Weylin. Is Rufus an improvement or simply an alteration
of his father? Where, if any, is there evidence of Dana's influence
on the young Rufus in his adult character?
- Of the slaves' attitude
toward Rufus, Dana observes "Strangely, they seemed to like
him, hold him in contempt, and fear him at the same time." (page
229) How is it they can feel these contradictory emotions? How
would you feel toward Rufus if you were in their situation?
- Compare Dana's 'professional'
life (i.e. her work as temporary help) in the present with her
life as a slave.
- When Dana and Kevin return
from the past together, she thinks to herself: "I felt
as though I were losing my place here in my own time. Rufus's
time was a sharper, stronger reality." (page 191) Why would
the twentieth century seem less vivid to Dana than the past?
- Dana loses her left arm
as she emergesfor the last time in the novelfrom
the past. Why is this significant?
- Kevin is stranded in
the past five years, while Dana is there for almost one. Is
there a reason why Butler felt Kevin needed to stay in the past
so much longer? How have their experiences affected their relationship
to each other and to the world around them?
- A common trend in the
time-travels of science fiction assumes that one should not
tamper with the past, lest s/he disrupt the present. Butler's
characters obviously ignore this theory and continue to invade
each other's lives. How does this influence the movement of
the narrative? How does this convolute the idea of 'cause and
- Dana finds herself caught
in the middle of the relationship between Rufus and Alice? Why
does Rufus use Dana to get to Alice? Does Alice use Dana?
- The needs and well-being
of other residents of the plantation create a web of obligation
that is difficult to navigate. Choose a specific incident; and
determine who holds power over whom and assess how it affects
- Dana states: "It was
that destructive single-minded love of his. He loved me. Not
the way he loved Alice, thank God. He didn't seem to want to
sleep with me. But he wanted me aroundsomeone to talk
to, someone who would listen to him and care about what he said,
care about it." (page 180) How does the relationship between
Dana and Rufus develop? How does it change? What are the different
levels of love portrayed in Kindred?
- Discuss the ways in which
the title encapsulates the relationships within the novel. Is
it ironic? Literal? Metaphorical? What emphasis do we place
on our own kinship? How does it compare with that of the novel?
- Do you believe
that Dana and Kevin's story actually happened to them, or that
they simply got caught up in the nostalgia of moving old papers
- Butler opens the novel
with the conclusion of Dana's time travels. The final pages
of the book, however, make up an epilogue demonstrating a, once
again, linearly progressive movement of time. How does the epilogue
serve to disrupt the rhythm of the narrative?
- After returning from
his years in the nineteenth-century, Kevin had attained "a slight
accent" (page 190). Is this `slight' alteration symbolic of
greater changes to come? How do you imagine Kevin and Dana's
relationship will progress following their re-emergence into
life in 1976?
View the Teacher's Guide