||Viktor Frankl was born in Vienna,
||Frankl graduates from high school
||Frankl meets Freud in person
|1928 - 1929
||Frankl organizes cost-free counseling
centers for teenagers in Vienna and six other cities and begins working
at the Psychiatric University Clinic
||Frankl earns his doctorate in medicine
Frankl put in charge of the ward for suicidal
women at the psychiatric hospital
January 30: Adolf Hitler was appointed
chancellor of Germany.
April 1: The Nazis organized a nationwide
boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany.
May 10: Nazi party members, students,
teachers, and others burned books written by Jews, political opponents
of Nazis, and the intellectual avant-garde during public rallies across
September 15: The Nazi government decreed
the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of the German
Blood and Honor. These Nuremberg "racial laws" made Jews second-class
citizens. They prohibited sexual relations and intermarriage between
Jews and "persons of German or related blood."
||Frankl opens his own practice in neurology
German troops invaded Austria, and Germany incorporated Austria into
the German Reich in what was called the Anschluss.
July 6-15: Delegates from 32 countries
and representatives from refugee aid organizations attended the Evian
Conference at Evian, France, to discuss immigration quotas for refugees
fleeing Nazi Germany. Most countries were unwilling to ease their immigration
November 9-10: In a nationwide pogrom
called Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"), the
Nazis and their collaborators burned synagogues, looted Jewish homes
and businesses, and killed at least 91 Jews. Approximately 30,000 Jewish
men were arrested and imprisoned in the Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald,
and Mauthausen concentration camps.
Frankl obtains a visa to the United States but
concerned for his elderly parents, lets it expire
March 15: German troops occupied the Czech
lands and established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
May 13-June 17: Cuba and the United States
refused to accept more than 900 refugees-almost all of whom were Jewish-aboard
the ocean liner St.Louis, forcing its return to Europe.
September 1: German troops invaded Poland,
marking the beginning of World War
Frankl is made head of the neurological department
of Rothschild Hospital, the only hospital for Jews in Vienna during
the Nazi regime, for the next two years
May 20: SS authorities established the Auschwitz
concentration camp (Auschwitz I) outside the Polish city of Oswiecim.
Frankl marries his first wife, Tilly Grosser
June 22: Germany and its Axis forces invaded
the Soviet Union. German mobile killing squads called Einsatzgruppen
were assigned to identify, concentrate, and kill Jews behind the front
September 3: At the Auschwitz concentration
camp, SS functionaries performed their first gassing experiments using
September 15: The Nazi government decreed
that Jews over the age of six who resided in Germany had to wear a yellow
Star of David on their outer clothing in public at all times.
November 24: German authorities established
the Theresienstadt (also Terezin) ghetto, in the German controlled Protectorate
of Bohemia and Moravia.
November 26: SS authorities established
a second camp at Auschwitz, called Auschwitz-Birkenau or Auschwitz II
which was later used as a killing center.
Frankl is arrested with his wife, father, mother,
and brother and brought to the concentration camp at Theresienstadt
in Bohemia. His father dies there of starvation/exhaustion.
January 20: Senior Nazi officials met at a villa
in the outskirts of Berlin at the Wannsee Conference to discuss and
coordinate implementation of the "Final Solution."
||Organized arrests of Jews occur in
workplaces for the purposes of deportation
||Frankl is transported with Tilly and
his 65-year-old mother to the extermination camp Auschwitz. His mother
is immediately murdered in the gas chamber, and Tilly is moved to Bergen-Belsen,
where she dies at the age of 24. His brother and his brother's wife also
die in the gas chambers of Auschwitz. Frankl is later transported by cattle
car, via Vienna, to Kaufering and Türkheim (subsidiary camps of Dachau)
Frankl's camp is liberated, and he returns to
Vienna, only to discover the deaths of his loved ones
January 17: As Soviet troops approached,
SS units evacuated prisoners in the Auschwitz camp complex, marching
them on foot toward the interior of the German Reich. The forced evacuations
came to be called "death marches."
January 27: Soviet troops liberated about
8,000 prisoners left behind at the Auschwitz camp complex.
April 29: U.S. troops liberated approximately
32,000 prisoners at Dachau.
April 30: Hitler committed suicide in
his bunker in Berlin.
May 7-9: German armed forces surrendered
unconditionally in the West on May 7 and in the East on May 9.
Allied and Soviet forces proclaimed May 8, 1945, to be Victory in Europe
Day (V-E Day).
September 2: World War II officially ended.
November 20: The International Military
Tribunal, made up of United States, British, French, and Soviet judges,
began a trial of 21 major Nazi leaders at Nuremberg, Germany.
Official acts documenting anti-Jewish actions
are to be destroyed.
||Frankl given the position
of director of the Vienna Neurological Policlinic where he stays for 25
||Frankl marries Eleonore
Schwindt -- "Elly"--and has a daughter, Gabriele, in December
of that year
||Frankl publishes his book
Man's Search for Meaning
||Frankl receives his Ph.D.
in philosophy and made associate professor of neurology and psychiatry
at the University of Vienna
||Frankl founded and became
president of the Austrian Medical Society for Psychotherapy
||Frankl dies of heart failure